It’s a bird… it’s a plane… it’s a… yeah it is a plane. For Chicagoans, it’s that time of year where we get to enjoy some of the most amazing and stunning mechanical, aerial acrobatics around; the Chicago Air and Water Show. This year marks the shows 60th anniversary. In honor of the occasion, DLZ is showcasing its own aeronautical spectacle, UAV usage in industrial environments.
A Brief History of UAV Flight
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been around since the early 20th century, however usage for commercial purposes and governing regulations are in their infancy. Prior to 2014/2015, UAVs were mostly a novelty for enthusiasts, tinkerers, and researchers. In 2015, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) decided to allow commercial companies to use UAVs to conduct business. Since that time, UAV usage in the United States has grown exponentially even though the framework created by the FAA was restricting and required a difficult exemption process to sell UAV services. Meanwhile, the consumer side of UAVs, commonly referred to as drones, did not operate under the same regulatory restrictions and as such saw an even faster adoption of technology and rise in total sales.
The Chicago Air and Water Show features planes of all eras and styles from the modern F-35 to the iconic F/A-18 flown by the Blue Angels to the P-51 Mustang made famous by its role in World War II. That same level of aeronautical innovation has occurred with UAVs in a short span of time. The relaxation of regulations brought with it more enthusiasts that drove the price of components down and the innovation of new technology. Modern UAV platforms come with advanced gyro stabilization, GPS tracking, anti-collision sensors, and many other safety features to allow our pilots to collect flight data quickly and efficiently.
The Rise of UAV Demand in Industrial Settings
The first uses of UAVs in industrial environments were to measure raw materials, transmission lines, and aerial mapping primarily for cost savings and lack of an alternative method. This introduced clients to the idea of UAVs and eventually led to wider adoption throughout the process. While those projects continue to makeup a large portion of UAV services, they are only a small amount of the full capability possible. One of biggest drivers of current adoption has been safety. Over that past few decades, large industrial operations have continued to increase safety regulations forcing the innovation of practices and procedures that can do a job safer, faster, and with less chance of harm to human life. That evolution in safety culture has led to the usage of UAVs in non-traditional roles. A few examples of projects that UAVs have made safer:
- Confined space entry: Whether on a blast furnace or a tank vessel, mechanical rotors do not need breathable air.
- Structural inspection: Rather than use a manlift or have humans tied off to lifelines, UAVs have utilized higher resolution video and still pictures to find structural deficiencies without putting a person in harm’s way.
- Raw material surveys: At one time the only way to topographically map a pile of ore, coal or other material was to physically climb on top of it and measure it. Now UAVs can map acres of land and all material on that land in a matter of a few hours rather than days.
- High Hazard Areas: If an area is known to have caustic elements, high temperature, or even radiation, UAVs provide a safe way to gather information without risking life.
The Future of UAVs in Industrial Operations
One of the most exciting emerging technologies for UAVs is LIDAR. LIDAR itself is not a new technology but adaptation for the UAV platform and its non-stop accuracy improvements make for an exciting future. Currently, ground-based LIDAR is used for a plethora of applications in all settings with modern high-definition laser scanners able to measure as accurate as a millimeter. Current UAV-based LIDAR systems have an accuracy of several centimeters but we’re starting to see that accuracy improve. Over time, those technologies will overlap and UAV-based LIDAR may even replace ground-based in the not-so-distant future.
Wrapping It Up
UAV technology and usage in industrial applications is not only here to stay but is continuing to become a more vital part of our day-to-day operations. While I personally see the modern usage of UAVs daily, I still find wonder and awe once a year watching the Chicago Air and Water Show thinking of how flight, whether UAV or pilot-based, has evolved and dreaming of the future yet to come.
Water is becoming more of a precious resource every year. From the ability to handle storm runoff, store water for public and private use, manage areas for recreation, and even assist in navigation, the necessity to accurately determine water volume and depth has become a growing project requirement throughout the Midwest.
The methods survey firms use to meet these project requirements has also grown thanks to today’s technology. The days of row boats and manual sounding chains have given way to single and multi-beam echo sounders on regular watercraft and even remote-controlled watercraft – which at times is a better and safer solution.
This remote-controlled method is possible thanks to Teledyne Marine’s Z-boat technology. DLZ has incorporated this technology for years. The Z-Boat performs hydrographic survey work in bodies of water where access and shallow depth can cause major issues in watercraft mobilization. It is a safe and many times faster solution in troubled waters.
The Z-Boat is approximately 3ft x 5ft, made of plastic, has two electric outboard motors and weighs 150lbs once loaded with batteries and equipment. Using dual frequency beam echo sounders to allow for readings on both hard and soft surfaces, survey data is transmitted to an on-shore field computer in real time using a radio link. Through GPS antennas and radios, field personnel can control the Z-Boat and monitor the data safely in real time.
Due to its small size and large variety of potential operating environments, the Z-Boat can be placed in the water either directly with a dolly or a crane and sling, as long as the water is at least 1ft deep.
The Z-Boat is often the safest option. In shallow bodies of water with a soft sediment bottom, it can be very hazardous for a person to walk out and get stuck. In some cases, the water may be contaminated. To reduce the potential of personnel exposure to hazardous materials, DLZ uses the Z-Boat which can be/ or which is then decontaminated afterwards. The Z-Boat can go up to 6mph and is a suitable choice for fast moving streams and rivers that may be more precarious on foot or in manned vessels. At times, there may not be an appropriate location to launch a larger survey vessel, in which case the Z-Boat is again the safer option.
A versatile boat, the Z-boat can meet a range of challenging hydrographic survey environments. With the capability to survey in conditions that could be hazardous to personnel, collect quality data, and keep our employees safe, the Z-Boat positions DLZ to safely deliver cutting edge solutions to our clients’ surveying needs.
DLZ realizes that serious efforts must be made to mitigate the effects of climate change and the reduction of our environmental footprint, which is why we have made sustainability part of our way of life in our offices and through our projects.
Through our projects we have contributed to:
- The reduction of energy, water, and greenhouse gases through our Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) designed buildings
- The reduction of harmful emissions such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides through our Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) stations. In addition to the environmental benefits of CNG, it also displaces petroleum fuels, saving taxpayer dollars and reducing dependency on foreign produced oil
- The reduction of raw sewage overflows into the environment during rain events through our Combined Sewer Overflow projects
- The increase of alternative methods of transportation through our bike path projects
- The restoration of ecosystems and improvements to communities through river restoration and dam removals
- The reduction of non-renewable resources through hydroelectric power on our dam projects
We will continue making strides towards reducing our carbon footprint in our offices as well as through our projects. Together we can make a difference!
Every year the Association for Iron and Steel Technology (AIST) hosts a large trade show featuring industry professionals from all over the world, technical papers, discussion panels, and a vendor fair. This year, the trade show was hosted by the city of brotherly love at the Pennsylvania Convention Center in the heart of downtown Philadelphia. Three of DLZ’s project managers from our Burns Harbor, Indiana office attended to man a booth—and unexpectedly had an amazing time. They discovered nine ways to have fun while at the conference.
1. Business First
To have fun on a business trip, you first must make sure your business goals are achieved. I highly recommend meticulous planning for the event, especially the logistics of getting people and equipment to and from the venue. Establish goals before attending and ensure that you meet those goals during the conference. For example, our goal was to meet face-to-face with specific clients we would otherwise rarely be able to see, such as those from California or Canada.
2. Ask Questions
Even though I have been to Philadelphia in the past, I really enjoyed being a clueless tourist this go around. Instead of trying to look something up online we would ask a local where to find the best cheesesteak. By the way, in Philadelphia it is JUST a cheesesteak. If you ask for a Philadelphia cheesesteak, you will get made fun of pretty quickly. I tried Jim’s on South Street and the sandwich was phenomenal. More about food later. Asking questions is not just about recommendations; it helps you meet some good people. Asking questions also conveys your interest in someone else. I found that just asking simple questions and shutting my mouth often led to hearing incredible personal stories and learning interesting things about the city.
3. Find Good People
Networking is a central activity at a tradeshow, so it is not hard to meet interesting people. On the first night of the convention, we were able to round up about 10 people to go out to dinner. It is amazing what you will learn from normally shy engineers—I can say that, I am one!—over a single bottle of wine (my boss is reading…). I must say, engineers are focused and passionate about what they do and if you talk about a subject they are interested in, hang on to your hat. Did you know an average tackle by an NFL player can reach 1600-lbs of force?
Good people come in all shapes and sizes. Stopping to have a conversation with someone you don’t know can be scary at first but eventually it becomes natural. Never pass up the opportunity to talk with people.
4. Embrace Your Inner Foodie
Travel has its ups and downs but even a bad trip can be saved by some good, regional food. When you describe a trip what do you describe? You talk about where you stayed, what you did, and what you ATE. This trip was filled with amazing food. Every meal was decided by someone we met or recommended by a local. My two favorite meals:
Jim’s cheesesteak on South Street. We went with the traditional fare: steak, onions, and cheese whiz on an Italian roll. The sandwich was messy and gooey but oh so yummy. The beef was tender with a deep, savory flavor. While we waited for our order, we chatted with the cook about attending punk concerts.
Pearl’s Oyster Bar in the Reading Terminal Market, conveniently located across the street from the convention center. The best part of Pearl’s may have been our server, Brian, who was born in Philadelphia. When I asked for his recommendation between a crab cake or shrimp po’ boy, he simply said, “order the Vietnamese Roll.” He had an obvious passion for the finer details of oysters. While I cannot tell you the difference between a long brine or an ocean salt soak, I can say the oysters were incredibly fresh and left me wanting another half dozen. The Vietnamese roll was a bit tangy with some heat that was complimented by perfectly cooked shrimp and thinly-cut carrots. Thanks for the recommendation Brian.
5. Have an Open Mind
I have had the privilege of traveling all over the world for work. At the end of the day, I just want to relax. My colleagues and I made a conscious choice that we would try new things during our trip to Philly. We took suggestions. Whether listening to new music or trying a small, out of the way diner or just strolling the streets to look at street art, having an open mind served us well. Philadelphia is a rich city with an incredible history. What I did not expect was the dedication to art of all mediums. From painted mailboxes to an entire alley that creates a flowing, ever-changing mural, the city itself becomes the display case.
6. Plan Ahead
There are endless opportunities in a major city. During the convention, there were concerts, a 10-mile run, NBA playoffs, NHL playoffs, and countless smaller events to suit everyone. Find what you may enjoy, but at the same time, don’t lock yourself into a rigid plan. We chose a single scheduled event, a punk concert the night before the vendor fair started. Nothing contrasts with hardcore technical discussion quite like a night of moshing in a sweat-filled concert venue.
7. Don’t Over Plan
Do not take the previous point about searching for events too far. You can over prepare and miss out on good times. Originally, we thought about purchasing tickets to the Philadelphia vs. Boston NBA playoff game. While that would have been fun, we would have missed the dinner with engineers in point 3.
When in a new city, there is nothing like the feeling of discovery that comes from the spontaneity of unscheduled, directionless walking. There is just something exciting about coming across the unexpected; like a community garden surrounded by commercial buildings or group of new graduates that decided to set up a dance competition on a random street corner complete with a wireless speaker.
8. Don’t Be Afraid of Being Silly
When I first decided to blog about the conference, I had no idea what to expect or even what to do. We decided to just take pictures… of everything. From selfies at 6am walking through the airport to posing with statues around the city—every turn we took the camera was ready. As time went on, we did more and more silly things. Eventually, the people at the conference started to join in. When people see you having fun, they inevitably want to join in. This also works to break the ice and introduce yourself (and your company) to potential clients.
9. Write a Blog!
Seriously! As we were taking silly pictures or asking weird questions, we received some odd looks. Once we shared that we were taking pictures for our company blog, people shifted from curiosity to wanting to participate. We even got the President of DLZ Industrial to take a picture with a band that looked straight out of Mardi Gras. People who were strangers 10-seconds before were standing shoulder-to-shoulder with wide smiles as long as it was “for the blog.” Some of the most serious people we met opened up and allowed their caricature to be drawn or give a piggy back ride in the name of fun. Who knew those things were a blog away?
My biggest take away from our week at the Iron and Steel conference is that work is serious business, but you do not have to be serious to do work. Sometimes, it is okay to loosen the tie and allow yourself to enjoy life for a while.
Introducing “The Problem”
A large steel producer in Northwest Indiana (Client) recently had a legacy issue concerning one of its blast furnaces. Client noticed the furnace’s tuyeres (the holes through which air is forced into the blast furnace) were changing shape, going from cylindrical to ellipsoid. Client was concerned that the entire structure was slowly collapsing or shifting towards a point of structural failure.
To say the least, the problem was high profile.
The Call for Help
Survey crews from DLZ’s Burns Harbor office were asked to collect data on as much of the furnace’s over 100’ tall and nearly 50’ diameter shell as possible, and analyze the data in order to better understand how much the furnace was moving.
Using a Leica P40 high definition 3D laser scanner over the course of a 10-hour work day, while the furnace was shut down for routine maintenance, two DLZ survey crews were able to get a baseline set of data.
In total, the initial set of data approximated 65gb (2.5 billon) individual data points.
Analyzing the Data
The challenge was not analyzing the data a single time. The challenge was having a way to analyze the data multiple times quickly and accurately. Additionally, the furnace is subject to normal movement, and that needs to be accounted for.
Leveraging Computing Power to Process Data
After registering (the process of “stitching” together multiple sets of data) the laser scan data, the rest of the processing was turned over to a computer algorithm. The algorithm parsed the data based on a radial grid, and reduced the 2.5 billon points down to just 20,000 representative monitoring points.
A second algorithm was written to find and analyze those same 20,000 points from any subsequent dataset.
Understanding the Audience
While engineers, surveyors, and other technical-minded professionals are comfortable with, and often prefer, numbers and raw data, a set of 20,000 points is just too large to properly comprehend, and the high-profile nature of the project involved several non-technical decision makers. With these considerations in mind, the priorities for project deliverables were as follows:
- Visuals > Numbers
With so many individual data points it is nearly impossible to gain an accurate understanding of the structures movement from tables and charts alone. To help this problem, a colormap was created to represent deviations with color instead of with numbers.
- Speed of Interpretation > Resolution of Results
By using colors to represent deviations the reader loses the ability to know the exact deviation at any given location. The tradeoff is the reader gains the ability to interpret the entire data set quickly as colors form trends and are represented in a picture.
- Solution > Interpretation (in regard to communication)
The visualizations resulted in a quick, consistent interpretation of the data by multiple readers. This allowed the focus of the group to be on solutions rather than spending a large amount of time trying to understand, interpret, or debating the meaning of the data.
Visualizing and Presenting the Results
Ultimately the project deliverables were a 2D colormap and a 3D model, which illustrated that the furnace did show both movement and change in shape, but not enough to cause concern. After only a 10-minute conversation about DLZ’s findings, the discussion was able to move to solutions, which meant the collected data had been presented in a meaningful way that the client understood.
The Project Going Forward
Based on the results of DLZ’s analysis, the client decided to continue monitoring the blast furnace bi-monthly to ensure the structure remains in a normal range of fluctuation. At the same time, various reinforcements and materials will be tested to see how they might influence the shape of the tuyeres and movement of the structure.
The client was able to choose preventative maintenance instead of expensive, unnecessary measures only because of the quick turnaround enabled by the use of algorithms over manual point cloud analysis to rapidly determine the scope of the problem.
When a project’s budget starts to dwindle, billable client interactions are usually the first on the chopping block. With competition always becoming more of a factor in the bidding processing, budgets are tighter than ever. Leveraging algorithms on this project provided quick answers and freed up valuable hours to allow for early additional client interaction with more face-to-face meetings and discussions than otherwise would have been possible.
Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that all governmental agencies perform a self-evaluation (SE) of their facilities to determine compliance with applicable ADA standards. Those governmental agencies with 50 or more employees also are required to prepare a transition plan to identify the steps they will take to correct non-compliant issues and to ensure access to their programs for persons with disabilities. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, nearly 1 in 5 Americans has a disability, and that number is expected to increase as the baby-boomer generation enters retirement age.
Passed in 1990, the ADA requires completion of the self-evaluation and transition plan (SETP), a requirement that few governmental entities did, and those that did perform a SETP, have not updated or implemented their plan. Due to low compliance and the increasing need for accessibility, some states have gone so far as to issue mandates that governmental entities must have a compliant SETP to remain eligible for federal funding. Threatened with the prospect of losing funding for road, bridge, and other vital projects, communities took notice and had to determine how they could preserve funding by meeting their ADA compliance obligations.
The 2010 mandate in Indiana led to DLZ’s assisting dozens of clients with a variety of ADA compliance services. DLZ sponsored full-day seminars in Indianapolis, South Bend, and Fort Wayne to provide information about the ADA compliance requirements for governmental entities, including towns, cities, and counties. DLZ offered services ranging from training on how to collect SE data to as-needed consultation to full service SETP data collection and document preparation. The clients ranged in size from small rural towns to larger cities, such as Mishawaka, Elkhart, and Terre Haute.
More recently, a 2016 Tennessee mandate enabled DLZ to assist numerous client communities in East Tennessee, such as Maryville, Alcoa, Sevierville, Blount County, and Gatlinburg, with full-service ADA evaluation of their facilities, policies, and programs and preparing their transition plans. DLZ was invited to respond to a City of Sevierville Request for Qualifications (RFQ) at the 2017 National ADA Symposium in Chicago. Several other RFQs followed and DLZ teamed with a local Tennessee-based firm that is collecting data within the public right-of-way (curb ramps, sidewalks, pedestrian signals, transit stops, etc.).
DLZ’s team of planners, architects, engineers, landscape architects, and construction observers work cooperatively to assist our clients and to determine the unique facilities and programs each client needs to provide access to. DLZ’s professionals assist clients by working through a detailed scoping process to identify facilities and portions within each facility that need to be included in the self-evaluation. Areas that need to be included in the facility self-evaluation are all areas open to the public, as well as common-use employee areas such as break rooms, conference rooms, restrooms, locker rooms, etc. Areas excluded from the evaluation are private offices and other employee work areas, mechanical and electrical rooms, janitor closets, etc. The policies and procedures portion of the self-evaluation includes a review of personnel practices, websites, staff training, emergency preparedness, signage, and numerous documents or publications provided to the public. Our process is proven effective and tailored specifically to each client’s needs.
In addition to full SETP services, DLZ also has provided both governmental and private, commercial clients with ADA compliance evaluations for a variety of facilities. Our staff assesses compliance of building and site features, determines priority for corrective action based on the difficulty non-compliant features present, and when possible provides immediate and long-term solutions and cost estimates.
Our staff are recognized authorities on ADA standards and guidelines. DLZ has presented on various ADA topics at numerous conferences and seminars, including Purdue Road School, Indiana Association of Cities and Towns, Indiana Society of Professional Engineers, Michigan Public Transit Association, and Transport Chicago. To expand their knowledge and understanding of ADA issues, these same individuals also participate in ADA webinars and attend the National ADA Symposium, the largest, educational opportunity about ADA issues.
Let DLZ’s team of ADA specialists assist you with improving access to your facilities and with meeting your ADA compliance obligations.
How long does it take to design a project? Sometimes not nearly as long as it takes to effectively communicate the design to everyone who needs to understand it. I see it all the time. A set of plans will come across my desk. At first glance, they look good. There is a title sheet, grading plan, utility plan, detail sheet and some calculations. Seems like everything necessary to build the project has been included. If not, a contractor probably can construct a project that resembles the plans by making some assumptions. But is a constructed project that is somewhat like the plans sufficient? Not for most owners. And what about other parties that need to use the plans and calculations?
One of my responsibilities at DLZ is to review consultant stormwater plans for compliance with local standards. Rarely are the submittals mathematically wrong. Most of the concerns found during a review stem from ambiguity.
A common ambiguity relates to describing existing conditions at the project limits. Submittals also frequently include large amounts of calculations without an explanation of what variables were used and why. Plans and calculations must communicate that the design is sound, it meets the minimum requirements of reviewing agencies, and it can be constructed. A plan with ambiguities does not satisfy these three requirements.
Design plans and calculations for a given project may have several audiences, with a variety of needs. The only formal construction agreement that depends on a clear design might be between the owner and the contractor. But design clarity also is essential for permitting agencies. The plans and calculations must communicate how the agencies’ requirements are being fulfilled. The occupants of neighboring parcels need clarity to evaluate whether a proposed project may negatively affect the use and enjoyment of their property. The plans and calculations must define a single vision of the final project to all potential audiences.
The design professional has more communication tools available than many other professions. There are the graphic elements of the plans sheets, which are supplemented with general notes and specifications. A report narrative can be used to pull the plan graphics and specifications into simple language. Because we are all human, even well communicated design plans, calculations, and associated reports may contain conflicting or problematic information occasionally. This may trigger questions for the designer or cause the user to request more information. A well communicated set of design documents will help everyone concerned discover those issues sooner rather than later. Problems arise when there is a need for any interested party to interpret ambiguous plans. Each audience assumes it understands the designer’s design intent, even if their respective interpretations are different. Neither the audience nor the design professional may realize there is a difference in understanding until the project is complete or at least well under way. That certainly is not the ideal time to first discover and address those issues.
Attorneys’ careers are spent eliminating or exploiting ambiguities in agreements. Design consultants need to show the same care in eliminating ambiguities in their deliverables. An attorney armed with an ambiguity in design plans usually spells trouble.
A mathematically correct design is not enough. The merits of the design can still be totally lost when communication about its intent fails. The design professional must effectively communicate with everyone the basis and intent of their design. There is no ambiguity about that.
What’s that smell?! If you share a refrigerator with co-workers, you may ask yourself this question multiple times a week. Expired yogurt, forgotten takeout, leaky containers… all these and more can contribute to a not so fresh aroma that can permeate the kitchen area and beyond.
The first thing to consider when utilizing a communal fridge setup is to assess the temperature of both the refrigerator and freezer. According to Foodsafety.gov, the ideal temperature for refrigerators is 40 degrees Fahrenheit or colder. For freezers, the Food and Drug Administration recommends 0 degrees Fahrenheit as an ideal target to preserve food as long as possible. It’s a good practice to double check temperatures with a thermometer—don’t trust the appliance’s internal readout. Temperatures between 40 degrees and 140 degrees are what’s known as the “danger zone” and should be avoided at all costs. Bacteria is the enemy and it thrives in this temperature range. It not only smells bad, but it can make you sick and even lead to death. According to Foodborneillness.com, there are 31 known foodborne pathogens. 90% of all illnesses due to these known pathogens are caused by seven of the most common:
- E. coli O157:H7
- Clostridium perfringens
Bacteria can begin growing in just 20 minutes in food stored in the aforementioned “danger zone” temperature range. To be safe, throw out any perishable food items from the refrigerator that are over a week old, even if they’ve been stored at the proper temperature. If you notice mold or something smells funny, err on the side of caution and discard the item immediately. If power is lost and you cannot determine how long it’s been out, throw away perishable items—better safe than sorry. If you do happen to ingest something that makes you feel sick, determine if it’s food poisoning or just a run of the mill stomach bug. Healthline.com has some valuable information in determining which is which:
Food poisoning can be serious. Avoid solid foods until any nausea or vomiting has ceased. Avoid spicy/greasy/fried/sweet foods. Eat small amounts of bland foods like, bread, crackers, rice or bananas. Sip on clear fluids and gradually increase the amount to stay hydrated. Webmd.com suggests calling a doctor if symptoms last more than 3 days or you have:
- Severe stomach pain
- Prolonged vomiting
- Signs of dehydration
Hot, soapy water should be used to clean up any spills as soon as they are spotted. Once a spill is left for too long, it can seep into cracks and crevices, harden and become more difficult to remove.
Cleaning should be a shared responsibility in an office environment. Make a rotating schedule for everyone who uses the refrigerator to clean it every week or two. If we all take pride in keeping the fridge clean, the risk for foodborne diseases will decrease and you will feel a sense of accomplishment for a job well done.
Food labels also contain valuable information for storage guidelines and expiration dates. Did you know there are a plethora of items that people commonly think need to be refrigerated but actually don’t? Keep these items out of the fridge to improve the taste as well as free up some valuable refrigerator real estate for your co-workers. (cnet.com)
Another good tip is to label items you put into the communal fridge. If Items belonging to you are labeled, they’re less likely to “disappear” and you won’t have to spend money eating out instead of enjoying those delicious leftovers you whipped up last night.
One can argue whether or not global warming is occurring, but facts prevent the argument that our climate is not changing. For example, this was the first year on record for three hurricanes to hit the U.S. at Category 4 or greater – Harvey (category 4), Irma (category 5) and Jose (category 4). In addition, Houston has had a 500-year flood event each of the last three years. The probability of three successive 500-year flood events is 0.000000008. In the national media we often hear how climate change will impact the coastal states, but how will it affect us here in the Ohio River Basin? I had the privilege of being the Project Manager for a recent study that was the first comprehensive study to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the Ohio River Basin’s water resources infrastructure and its ecosystem. It was conducted by a team of engineers and scientists from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), USEPA, the National Weather Service’s Ohio River Forecast Center, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Marshall University, the University of Cincinnati, the University of New Hampshire, The Nature Conservancy, and several consulting firms.
The study was led and funded by the USACE, which has a compelling need to understand and adapt to climate change because our nation’s water resources infrastructure represents tremendous federal investment that supports public safety and local and national economies. In an effort to gain a better understanding of how climate change could impact the nation’s water resources infrastructure and our ecosystems, the USACE conducted 19 climate change pilot studies across the U.S. to test new ideas and develop new information needed to develop national policy and guidance. One of these pilot studies was conducted on the Ohio River Basin.
The Ohio River Basin contains a multitude of reservoirs, locks and dams, power generation plants and other types of infrastructure that depend on sustainable water resources. In addition, ecological resources in the basin include numerous federally-protected species that may be at risk from climate change. The two primary purposes of the study were to investigate how climate change could impact water resources infrastructure (locks, dams, levees, etc.) and the potential effects of climate change on the basin’s aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and threatened and endangered species.
The Ohio River Basin is over 204,000 square miles and covers all or parts of 14 states stretching from New York to Alabama. It is home to 27 million people, five million of which rely on the Ohio River for drinking water. Water resources in the basin provide $1.5 billion to the nation’s economy each year.
The study was based on a global climate change model produced by the International Panel on Climate Change and adapted by an interagency water resources group comprised of four federal government entities, including the USGS and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Ohio River Forecast Center (ORFC) modeled mean air temperature and average precipitation over three 30-year periods: from 2011-2040, from 2041-2070, and from 2071-2099 at 25 gage points throughout the basin. However, before conducting these out-year simulations, the ORFC back-casted the model for the period from 1952-2001. Remarkably, the output data for temperature and stream flows from the back-casted model was within 2% of observed historical readings in all 25 data points throughout the basin. Therefore, the model was calibrated very accurately.
The model predicted there will be little change in air temperature and precipitation from 2011-2040. However, from 2041 to 2099, the northeastern and eastern portions of the basin will experience greater rainfall and river discharges. Specifically, as much as 35%-50% greater stream flows during the spring within the Allegheny, Monongahela, Kanawha and Big Sandy River sub-basins. During this same period, the northwestern and western portions of the basin also will experience greater rainfall and river discharges in the spring season, but the fall season will bring significant reductions in rainfall and thus decreased river flows and possibly drought. The model predicted as much as 25%-35% less flows during the fall within the Great Miami, Wabash, East Fork of the Wabash, White, Scioto and Muskingum River Basins.
In summary, between 2011-2040 the mean, maximum and minimum flows are within the historical range. However, from 2041-2099 the minimum flows are likely to decrease in the fall and peak spring floods are likely to increase. The good news is we have about 20 years to take action to plan for and minimize the potential negative impacts to our basin due to climate change.
The National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS) require that every publicly-owned, bridge-sized structure carrying traffic must be inspected every 24 months as a means to ensure the safety of the traveling public and keep our transportation system moving. But what is a bridge-sized structure? Isn’t any bridge a bridge? Not in this case. The NBIS defines a bridge-sized structure as “an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more than 20 feet between (faces) of abutments or spring lines of arches, or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes; it may also include multiple pipes, where the clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening.” That means that the clear span under a bridge or the distance from one side of a culvert system to the other has to be more than 20 feet.
The magic number is 20 feet. Every public bridge or culvert over 20 feet long should be inspected on a regular basis to check for maintenance issues, deficiencies, and functionality. In order for each State to stay in compliance with the Federal mandate, a trained eye needs to inspect each of those structures every 24 months. What if your bridge only spans 19’-10”? What if you have a culvert made up of three, 6-foot diameter corrugated metal pipes? Any structure 20 feet or less is considered a small structure, and several counties and cities have vast small structure inventories that have no requirements for inspection by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The 1968 Federal-Aid Highway Act limited the bridge inventory to Federal-Aid highway system bridges. After the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1978 was passed, NBIS requirements were extended to include bridges greater than 20 feet on all public roads. These requirements enforce the inspection of over 605,000 bridge-sized structures in our nation. There is really nothing magic about 20 feet; the government just needed a reasonable cutoff for funding and it is easy to see that this system covers a great number of bridges. Structures 20 feet or less are not part of this system, however, and their inspection is the Owner’s responsibility. If you are unsure whether or not someone is inspecting the small structures in your inventory, then it’s possible they are not being inspected regularly, if at all.
Small structures need your attention. As a local public agency (LPA), it is important to realize that the small structures in your transportation system are not on the list for your State inspection. This reveals to you that these structures may very well have been left to age on their own, possibly since the day they were constructed. Many LPAs don’t even have a good inventory of these structures and rely heavily on their highway maintenance crews and the general public to let them know if repairs are needed. Often the “bridge inspection” performed by the public is based on what they see as they drive down the road. They will be quick to report a pothole, broken guardrail, or overflowing culvert because these things can generally be seen from inside their vehicle. The motoring public will rarely see the bottom of the bridge or the inside of the culvert barrel. The highway maintenance worker may get a better look, but these are still untrained eyes looking at vital pieces of our roadways. These workers may not understand issues with scour or the importance of simple maintenance that can prolong structure life. What can we do to improve the safety of our county and city roads? We can develop a plan to inventory, inspect, maintain, and repair our small structures. Small structure inspections are an important part of local highway maintenance and are becoming more important as our infrastructure ages and funding becomes slim.
It costs money to have an inspector look at all these structures. Money that could be used to fill a pothole, replace a light pole, patch a barrier, or replace a culvert. True. The initial price of small structures inspections often seems like a burden, but the advantage can well outweigh the cost. These inspections help the LPA to understand the status of all their small structures so that maintenance and repairs can be prioritized. Simply developing an inventory of small structures for an LPA is a great start and can be a good resource on its own for planning maintenance.
DLZ recommends that you contact a trained inspector and discuss your small structures inventory and any structures or areas of concern. An inspector can help develop an inventory of structures, prioritize inspection with help from the LPA, perform inspections, and return information to the owner about maintenance and repair needs and prioritization, and even replacement recommendations. This information will allow the LPA to make informed decisions in budgeting for future maintenance and repair.
DLZ has a team of bridge inspectors that has performed thousands of bridge-sized and small structure inspections throughout Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio. Our expertise and guidance has allowed LPAs to prioritize funding while maintaining road safety for their communities. Make sure someone is looking at your small structures and let us know if we can help.
Communities lie at the heart of all we do. As a company and as individuals, DLZ believes strongly in giving back to communities; not only those in which we work and live, but those that are less fortunate than others. DLZ’s staff contribute their time and talent to a number of organizations that help improve the lives and health of individuals throughout the world. That’s why we are proud to partner with the Central Ohio Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB-COh) and what it is doing in Guatemala.
In 2015, EWB-COh embarked on a new project in Las Victorias, a very poor Guatemalan community of about 400 people (over half under the age of 16, and 70 under the age of 5) mostly of Mayan descent. With the help of a local NGO (non-governmental organization) that supports the indigenous people, Las Victorias submitted an application to EWB National requesting a primary school for its community. The community’s young children were walking a couple miles over rugged terrain every day to the nearest school. The paths were impassable during the rainy season. The children were often made fun of for their Mayan ancestry; most of the country is of Spanish background. In an attempt to improve the situation, the community built a small, two-room wooden shack (dirt floor, open windows) to use as a temporary school. The building was far too small to hold all the children, and they realized something better was needed. The community felt so strongly about the need for a local school that its members pooled their money and bought property to use for the school. Even though they didn’t have the resources to build the school, they felt that education was the only way that their children might have a better life.
EWB-COh visited the community in 2016 to do an initial assessment and determined that the project would potentially have several phases. Because of the steep terrain, the site initially had to be leveled. In order to stabilize the steep soil cuts along the edges of the site, the first phase was to construct a large 17-foot retaining wall along two sides of the site. EWB-COh designed the wall, raised money for construction and completed construction in 2017. EWB-COh is currently working on designing the school building, and construction is scheduled to begin in October 2018. Subsequent phases may include additional classrooms for higher grades, better access to potable water, and sanitary latrines.
DLZ employees Jim Siebert and Mike Kennedy have played an active role in the EWB-COh’s work in Guatemala. Jim helped raise money for construction and led both the analysis and design of the retaining wall. Jim was there for the initial assessment trip and spent a week in Guatemala helping start construction of the wall. DLZ, a long-time supporter of EWB-COh, provided the survey equipment used to check the layout of the wall, and our in-house materials laboratory tested samples of soil and concrete brought back from Guatemala. Both Jim and Mike are helping to design the school and prepare the site grading. Jim will be traveling to Guatemala again when construction of the next phase begins.
“I’ve always enjoyed helping others, especially working on projects that help other people help themselves”, said Jim.
EWB’s philosophy is to develop sustainable infrastructure projects to improve the quality of life in developing countries. Because of Jim’s engineering and construction background, he feels fortunate to be part of this effort. So far, Jim has taken seven trips to Central America on EWB work; he says he’s always impressed with how hard the local people work and how thankful they are for the help.
As a company, DLZ knows the importance of giving back, and we are grateful for our generous employees that make community service a lifestyle. Although EWB volunteers pay their own way and the community provides manual labor at no cost, money is needed for materials and certain skilled labor and oversight. While we may not be able to save the world, we are fortunate to be a contributor to EWB-COh and a part of the life-changing work being done in this small Guatemalan community.
March is Women’s History Month and a time to applaud the many contributions of women to events in history and contemporary society all around the world. DLZ is fortunate to have some very talented women in our firm and we salute all women, especially those in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. Here are a few women that we find inspirational:
It is no secret that the STEM fields have been predominantly male occupations, with historically low participation among women. According to the Economics and Statistics Administration (part of the U.S. Department of Commerce), women hold only 24% of STEM jobs. Among STEM leaders the gender disparity is even greater. The Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (A/E/C) industry is historically (and even currently in some firms) known as an “old-boys club” workplace. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics from 2014, only 8.9% of people working in the construction industry are women.
DLZ is proud to a have a diverse leadership team, including six women leaders who serve as role models for the next generation of leaders. These women – Tanya Arsh, PE; Vicki Briggs, CPA; Laurie Johnson, PE; Cristine Klika, PE; Marcelyn Mathews, PE; and Vickie Wildeman, PE – serve as advocates to redress the disparity of women in both management and STEM fields in our society.
I reached out to these six ladies to learn about what led them to a career in STEM, who inspired them, what they feel is the key to their success, and if they had any advice for other women looking to follow in their footsteps. Here is summary of the responses that I received from each of these incredible women:
In addition to these six female STEM leaders, DLZ also has 13 women in other leadership roles, such as project managers, and directors of marketing. DLZ truly has shifted its once male-dominated leadership team and is changing the way that women are advancing internally. Our female leaders are mentors to other women in the firm, empowering them, and encouraging them to be the best that they can be.
March is Women’s History Month and we applaud women in STEM and we encourage you to not just empower other women, but to inform the youth of society that they can be just as successful as men in STEM roles.
Accurate data collection can greatly impact the success of a roadway project. For three decades, DLZ has contributed to the vast array of traffic data utilized by public agencies from the local to federal level in the planning and analysis of our transportation networks. While DLZ has stayed at the forefront by incorporating cutting edge technologies for collecting accurate vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian data safely and efficiently, we are constantly exploring new opportunities to provide our clients with more accurate and reliable data.
Historically, pneumatic road tubes have been utilized for 24-hour or longer roadway segment counts to collect volume and classification data. We’ve used count boards and field staff to manually collect classified turning movements at intersections and pedestrian and bicycle data. These methods are still used and are often the best alternative for a given situation. However, newer technologies have become available that improve accuracy and reliability of data collection while minimizing staff exposure to live traffic conditions during installation and removal of equipment. Magnetic lane counters like MHCorbin’s NC350 units collect length based classification in each lane of a roadway and can be secured in each lane quicker than road tube setups needed to collect comparable directional, classification data. NC350’s can also be a more reliable option in situations where tubes may become unsecured over the course of a count period. Video collection systems such as Miovision’s Scout Units can be used to collect turning movement counts, bike and pedestrian data at intersections and roadway segment counts as well. Video units are installed on the side of the road eliminating the need for technicians to enter or cross travel lanes as is needed for installing tubes or magnetic lane counters.
DLZ collects traffic data at 3,000 to 5,000 locations each year and it has become increasingly important to streamline the firm’s processes for scheduling field crews, documenting location and device information in the field and tracking progress in the office. To this end, DLZ has incorporated ESRI’s family of ArcGIS desktop, web and mobile applications into our traffic data collection workflow. Traffic Engineers in the office develop schedules for field crews marking locations to be collected in ArcGIS and synced with ArcGIS Online. DLZ field staff utilize ESRI’s Collector app on their iPads to see their scheduled locations and can use the Navigator app to find efficient travel times between locations. Field notes that are needed to identify the counter used and its placement are entered in Collector along with geocoded pictures of the installation. This information is synched with ArcGIS Online and used in preparing data reports without the need to transcribe handwritten paper notes in the office. Incorporating ArcGIS into a firm’s data collection processes greatly improves efficiency and reduces errors that might require recounting a location.
Safely collecting traffic data begins with the employees. DLZ’s field staff, many of whom have been with the company for 10 or more years, focus on safely installing and removing equipment within or on the side of roadways and are properly trained to do so. Having a fleet of conspicuous work trucks with flashing lights, advance warning signs and cones for use as needed are all important safety measures to consider. All DLZ field staff wear reflective clothing and are certified in setting up and conducting flagging operations. However, every effort is made to minimize the time spent at each location. Closing a traffic lane is rarely needed.
Transportation agencies depend on current, reliable traffic data in order to make important maintenance and capital improvement decisions for their roadways. Traffic data is also a key aspect of funding requests for federal and state transportation maintenance and improvement programs. Ultimately, the quality of the transportation system serving our communities depends on accurate traffic data collected safely and efficiently.
Business owners, supervisors, and managers all hope for and benefit from low turnover rates. Finding suitable and qualified replacements is not always easy. Once a new employee has been hired it can take months to be fully functional in their new role. This phase is the perfect time to not only assimilate new hires but to build a strong foundation for engaged employees through onboarding.
Onboarding is the process of orienting, assimilating, and engaging new employees. If done properly, onboarding has many benefits. Check out the infographic below for examples:
There is no one way to approach onboarding as organizations tend to create their own programs, however some methods that are commonly employed include:
Onboarding is the first opportunity to make a new employee feel like an important part of an organization. Providing opportunities for the new hire to make connections with those who have shared skills, roles, interests, and hobbies is key. Socialization leads to higher job satisfaction, better job performance, and organizational commitment. And let’s not forget that happy employees are more productive and less likely to jump ship.
With Veterans Day approaching, there is no better time to thank our nation’s 22 million veterans for their service. They are our fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, neighbors and coworkers. Veterans are woven into the fabric of our nation—and our organization.
Anyone who has heard our CEO, Vikram Rajadhyaksha, P.E., share the history of DLZ, knows well the vital role the military, specifically, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, played in the growth of our business. The dam safety studies awarded to DLZ in its early years provided much of the revenue that allowed the organization to grow into the multi-disciplinary, award-winning company we know today. Indeed, much of what DLZ has become is attributed to the early work provided by the Army Corps.
In addition to being a key client, the U.S. Military has provided DLZ with many outstanding employees over the course of the company’s history. Members of the U.S. Armed Forces leave service with invaluable skill sets that make them uniquely qualified for work in our business. Veterans share high levels of personal discipline, teamwork, leadership, and a strong work ethic that easily translates into success in the civilian world. While mandates like the Veterans’ Assistance Act requires federal contractors to take affirmative steps to employ veterans, DLZ understands the value in hiring highly trained veterans and reservists. DLZ employs veterans in numerous specialties, from engineers to admins, throughout the company.
As you look for ways to show your support for veterans this holiday, you may want to consider attending a Veterans Day event, donating to a support organization or simply spending time with a service member. Many DLZ employees are active throughout the year and engage the military and veterans’ communities in a variety of meaningful ways. Regardless of how you choose to convey your appreciation, please join us in thanking our service members, veterans and coworkers for their service and continuing support of the United States of America and this organization.
DLZ joins community leaders, businesses, and advocacy organizations participating in Imagine a Day Without Water, in an effort to educate the public about the water infrastructure crisis currently facing the United States. Organized by the Value of Water Coalition, hundreds of organizations across the country will partake in events today aimed at raising awareness about the crucial need for investment to ensure that no community in America is left without water and the infrastructure that brings it to and from homes and businesses.
In 2017, America’s Infrastructure grade is a D+. The cost of upgrading water infrastructure is entirely on the shoulder of local communities, regardless of their ability or willingness to fund improvements. As a result, we see that many communities are only reacting to the problem rather than proactively planning investment, leaving their residents to face the consequences of substandard water infrastructure. Everyone witnessed the recent tragedy in Flint, Michigan where thousands of residents were affected by tainted water. Flint is one example, but they are not the only community making national news about inadequacy of a local water system. Millions of people live in regions where infrastructure has been neglected and are left to deal with the consequences.
DLZ is working side by side with public entities and the communities to promote appropriate level of investments to our aging water infrastructure and find cost effective solutions that will sustain dependable and safe drinking water systems for future generations. Furthermore, many people in other countries do not have safe drinking water systems at all. DLZ supports efforts of Engineers Without Border, an organization that empowers communities to meet their basic human needs and equips leaders to solve the world’s most pressing challenges through engineering projects. Many of our employees participate in that work and we are immensely proud of them. Our employees ongoing efforts with Engineers Without Borders include building sanitary systems in El Salvador, improving drainage issues, and planning to provide a water system to a school in Guatemala.
We are also proud to:
- Support water education programs for communities we live and work in
- Assist communities with improving their water quality by designing treatment and collection systems that utilize new technology and design concepts
- Champion protection of ecosystems for future generations
There is no doubt about it – a day without water is a crisis. That is why we are joining with hundreds of groups across the country for Imagine a Day Without Water. No community can thrive without water and every person deserves a safe, reliable, accessible water system. Let’s demand better, and make sure no American ever has to imagine a day without water again.
DLZ has had the opportunity to assist fire departments throughout the Midwest with fire station renovation and new construction design. Fire stations are more than the firefighters’ place of work, the facilities are the firefighters’ home away from home. There are many aspects to firehouse design, however the topic of promoting firefighter health is at the forefront of today’s discussions.
DLZ ’s architects and engineers incorporate a variety of design components to reduce potential health risks within the station. Firehouse configurations and spatial adjacencies not only meet functional operational needs but also establish “hot zones” which are separated from firefighter living zones. Decontamination areas, gear washing and drying zones and gear storage areas are located immediately off the apparatus floor area to contain potential exposure to the living spaces.
Ventilation systems are selected with careful attention to fresh air and exhaust air levels. The following measures are put in place to reduce the potential air-borne contaminants: direct capture ventilation systems are utilized for the vehicle exhaust systems within the apparatus bays; properly ventilated gear lockers and storage areas; and positive building pressure within the living areas is established to reduce air infiltration from the “hot zones.”
One of the more recent amenities within firehouses are firefighter saunas. Studies have shown sweating is very effective in removing toxins from the body. As a result, the use of saunas has become more common within today’s firehouses. When utilized with low cardio activities, toxins, including heavy metals and lead, which may enter the blood stream during fire calls, are flushed and removed.
DLZ appreciates firefighters and the call to serve our communities. As a reminder, Fire Prevention Week is October 8-14, 2017. This year’s Fire Prevention Week theme, “Every Second Counts: Plan 2 Ways Out!” works to better educate the public about the critical importance of developing a home escape plan and practicing it.
In support of Fire Prevention Week, DLZ encourages all households to develop a plan together and practice it. A home escape plan includes working smoke alarms on every level of the home, in every bedroom, and near all sleeping areas. It also includes two ways out of every room, usually a door and a window, with a clear path to an outside meeting place (like a tree, light pole, or mailbox) that’s a safe distance from the home.